8D Problem Solving Method

8D Problem Solving Method

What is 8D?

 - 8D is a systematic problem solving technique.

 - Ford Motor company developed this problem solving technique, it is known as Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS), in the 1980s.

 - The purpose of the 8D methodology is to identify, solve and eliminate recurring problems, making it useful in product and process improvement.


8 Dimensions of 8D Methodology

1) D1 Established the Team

 - Establish a small group of people with knowledge related to problem.

 - The team selected should be committed, competent, Co-coordinated, cross-functional with representation from all teams.

 - 8D must always have two key members: Leader and a Champion / Sponsor

 - Leader is the person who knows the 8D process and can lead the team.

 - Champion is the person who can affect change by agreeing with the findings and can give final approval on such changes.


2) D2 Describe the Problem

 - The problem needs to be objectively defined in a way that captures all of the key information. It can be helpful to ask what, who, where, when, how, and how much in order to develop a clear description.

 - Develop problem statement and flowchart of all operation and identify critical operation steps with respect to the problem.

 - Established a project goals, objectives and high level project plans.

 - we can use Fishbone diagram, Check sheet, 5W 2H tools to describe the problem.


3) D3 Interim Containment Action (ICA)

 - A quick fix is sometimes needed to solve the problem temporarily until a permanent solution can be found.

 - It might involve actions like hold/separate the affected items, replacing defective parts, before it reaches the customers. 

 - This step is mainly to prevent the problem from reaching the customers, which might become a competitive disadvantage and reduce customer loyalty.

 - This action can be implemented at 
 a. Supplier's RM store 
 b. Supplier's line
 c. Supplier's FG store 
 d. Customer's RM store
 e. Customer's line
 f. Customer's FG area
 - For this we can use why why analysis, check sheet and process flow chart to develop interim containment actions.


4) D4 Root Cause Analysis and Escape Point

 - Identify all applicable causes that could explain why the problem was occurred. Also find the reason why the problem was not noticed at the time it occurred.
 Activities in D4 includes

 - Verification of the Root Cause analysis through data collection.

 - Review Process Flow Diagram to find location of the root cause.

 - Determine Escape Point, which is the closest point in the process where the root cause could have been found but was not.

 - We can use Fishbone diagram, Why-why analysis, Check sheet, Process flow chart, Scatter diagram to identify the root cause and escape point.


5) D5 Permanent Corrective Action (PCA)

 - Once the root causes are understood, the team should formulate corrective actions to be taken to correct the problem.

 Activities in D5 includes

 - Establish the Acceptance Criteria which include Mandatory Requirements.

 - Perform a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on the PCA choices.

 - Based on FMEA, make a balanced choice for PCA.

 - Select control-point improvement for the Escape Point.

 - Verification of Effectiveness for both the PCA and the Escape Point are required.

 - We can use Fishbone diagram, Why-why analysis, Check sheet, Scatter Diagram, Process flow chart, Control plan, PFMEA to choose and verify Permanent Corrective Action.


6) D6 Implement and Validate Permanent Corrective Action

 - After arriving at the corrective actions, the team should validate whether the solutions are effective or not.

 Activities in D6 includes

 - Develop project plan for implementation.

 - Communicate the plan to all relevant interested parties.

 - Validation of improvements using measurements.

 - We can use Fishbone diagram, Why-why analysis, Check sheet, Scatter Diagram, Process Flow Chart to implement and validate permanent corrective action.


7) D7 Action to Prevent Recurrence (Horizontal Deployment)

 - The purpose is to share the knowledge, preventing problems on similar products, processes, locations or families.

 Activities in D7 includes

 - Review Similar Products and Processes for problem prevention.

 - Develop / Update Procedures and Work Instructions for Systems Prevention.

 - Capture Standard Work / Practice and reuse.

 - Assure FMEA and Control Plans updates have been completed.

 - We can use Fishbone diagram, Why-why analysis, Check sheet, Scatter Diagram, Process flow chart, Control plan, PFMEA, Work Instructions to prevent recurrence.


8) D8 Congratulate the Team

 - Identify the lessons learned and celebrate the success of the team.

 Activities in D8 includes

 - Prepare document for future reference.

 - Document on lesson learned.

 - Before and after comparison of issues.

 - Celebrate successful completion of 8D.

 - WE can use 8D report, Lesson learned document and Before & after comparison of the issue for the final stage in 8D methodology.


Download Sample Excel document of 8D report 

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