Industrial Revolution 4.0


Industrial Revolution 4.0

What is Industry 4.0?

- Industry 4.0 refers to the fourth industrial revolution, it is concerned with areas that are not usually classified as industry applications in their own right, such as smart cities.

 - It is also knows as I4 or I4.0

- Industry 4.0 converges IT (Information Technology) and OT (Operational Technology), to create a cyber-physical environment.

 - Industry 4.0 describes the growing trends towards automation and data exchange in technology and processes within the manufacturing industry.

- This automation creates a manufacturing system where machines in factories are augmented with wireless connectivity and sensors to monitor and visualise an entire production process and make autonomous decisions.

Types of Industrial Revolution

 - The changes in manufacturing and transportation with the help of new technologies called Industrial Revolution.

 1. First Industrial Revolution

 - This revolution came with advent of mechanisation, steam power and water power.

 - This revolution happens between 1700s and 1800s. 

 - During this period manufacturing evolved from focusing on manual labour performed by people and aided by work animals through the use of water & steam powered engines and other types of machine tools.

2. Second Industrial Revolution

 - In the early part of 20th century, second industrial revolution started with the introduction of steel and use of electricity in factories.

 - Many technical things like telephone, electric bulb, phonograph developed during this period.

 - The introduction of electricity enabled manufacturers to increase efficiency.

 - During this phase mass production concept like assembly line were introduced to boost productivity.

3. Third Industrial Revolution

 - 3rd Industrial revolution came with electronics, IT systems and automation.

 - 3rd revolution started in 1980s and continuing, manufacturer began experiencing a shift that put less emphasis on analog electronic devices and mechanical devices and more on digital technology.

 - It has potential to grow in the field of automated driving, 5G networks, renewable energy etc.

4. Fourth Industrial Revolution

 - From past few years, fourth industrial revolution takes the emphasis on digital technology with the help of Internet of Things (IoT), Cycber system, access to real time data.

 - It connects physical with digital and allows better collaboration between departments, partners, vendors, product and people.

 - It helps to better control and understand every aspect of their operation, and allows to provide instant data to boost productivity, improve processes and drive growth.

Industrial Revolution 4.0

Technologies Driving Industry 4.0

1. Internet of Things (IoT)

 - IoT is a key component of smart factories.

 - Machines are equipped with sensors that feature an IP address that allows the machines to connect with other web enabled devices.

 - This help to collect, analyzed and exchanged large valuable data.

 - This help to prevent the overstocking or understocking of inventory.

2. Cloud Computing

 - Cloud computing offers a platform for users to store and process vast amount of data on remote servers.

 - It allows to use computer resources without developing computing infrastructure in premises.

3. AI and Machine Learning

- Artificial Intelligence is a concept that refers to a computer’s ability to perform tasks and make decisions that would historically require some level of human intelligence.

 - Machine Learning is a concept that computers have to learn and improve on their own through artificial intelligence.

- AI and machine learning can create insights providing visibility, predictability and automation of operations and business processes.

 - This helps to perform predictive maintenance based on machine learning algorithms, resulting in more uptime and higher efficiency.

4. Edge Computing

 - Edge means where the data is created.

 - This minize the time from when data is produced to when a response is required.

 - It is a part of a distributed computing topology in which information processing is located close to the edge – where things and people produce or consume that information. 

5. Cyber security

 - As I4.0 provides increased connectivity and the use of standard communicating protocols cyber security is required which protects critical industrial systems and manufacturing lines from threats.

6. Digital Twin

 - Digital twin means to create virtual replicas of processes, production lines, actories and supply chain.

 - It can be created by pulling data from IoT sensors, PLCs and other objects connected to the internet.

 - Digital Twin can be used to help increase productivity, impove workflows and to design new products.

7. Augmented Reality (AR)

 - AR means creating virtual images or data on a physical object by using AR capable devices like smartphones, glasses etc.

- In the context of manufacturing, AR will used to provide virtual training i.e. AR could enable workers to speed up the assembly process and improve decision-making.

Industry 4.0 Design Principles

1. Interoperability

 - Interoperability means ability of machines, sensors, devices and people to connect and communicate with each other via Internet of things.

2. Information Transparency

 - The ability of system to create virtual copy of the physical world by enriching digital plant models with sensor data.

3. Technical Assistance

 - The ability of system to support humans by aggregating and visualizing information for making informed decisions and solving problems in short period.

 - The ability of system to support humans physically by conducting range of tasks that are unpleasant, unsafe and too exhausting for their human.

4. Decentralization of Decisions

 - Ability of system to make decision on their own and to perform their tasks as autonomously as possible only in the case of exceptions, interferences tasks delegated to higher level.

Industry 4.0 Design Principles

Impact of Industry 4.0

 - Continuous productivity

 - Operators skills

 - Machine safety

 - Product lifecycle

 - Remote Working

 - IT Security

 - Industry sales

Benefits of Industry 4.0

 - Improved Productivity

 - Improved Efficiency

 - Increased knowledge sharing

 - Makes complaince easier

 - Reduced maintenance cost

 - Better Customer Experience

 - Ensuring quality

 - Increased profitability

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